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Top 10 Programming Languages to Learn

Top 10 Programming Languages to Learn

With the advancement in the IT industry, several new programming languages get listed every year. Millions of coders develop new and notable apps with these languages. In addition, programming languages are the backbone of innovation in the IT industry. Therefore, in this article, we are going to discuss its different types and their key features.

What is a Programming Language?

Programmers use coding languages to communicate with computers to perform specific tasks. These computer languages have some set of rules which use string values for generating visual elements or machine code. Therefore, we can say that this set of instructions helps to give commands to the computer to complete a particular task.

Moreover, the list of programming languages is increasing daily, but most of them have the same basic idea. Therefore, any programmer whose basics are strong and who has a grip on some languages, these new languages are no problem for him. In the end, with the help of these coding languages, different software can be developed easily.

5 Major Types of Programming Languages

Many programming languages are available in the market, all falling into the 5 major categories. These categories will help you understand which programming language suits the specific task. But remember that some languages may fall into multiple types, so there is no need to get confused. Continue reading this part to learn all the major types of coding languages:

1. Procedural Programming Languages

This programming language divides the program into procedures or functions and follows commands in a sequence for generating output. To influence data stored in variables, this programming language uses a series of instructions. Moreover, these are the best languages used in industries like gaming, finance, etc. Besides, the languages under this category are C, Pascal, Basic, etc.

2. Functional Programming Languages

Suppose you want to use some flexible coding languages. In that case, functional programming languages can help you a lot because this programming language type focuses on the output of mathematical functions instead of making the execution of statements. In addition, it also increases the program’s reliability and makes it easy. Furthermore, the supporting languages in this type are Haskell, F#, Scala, and others. 

3. Object-Oriented Programming Languages

To make complex systems with interconnected objects, you can use object-oriented programming. This language focuses on objects composed of program elements such as attributes. With the help of this language, you can easily hide the implementation components from the world.

Doing this allows you to be stress-free about the internal workings of objects so that you can build large complex systems. In addition, the most famous languages of OOP are Java, Python, C++, Ruby, and so on.

4. Scripting Languages

Script coding languages help in automating the facilities of an existing system. Moreover, this language interprets at runtime instead of compiling time to generate good results. With the help of this language, several applications, text editors, and computer games can be set on automation. Examples of this language include PHP, Node.js, Bash, etc.

5. Logic Programming Languages

If you want to determine the relationship among objects and help the system to explore new information, logic programming language can be a good fit for you. Furthermore, this language consists of a cluster of logical statements, due to which a lot of AI and expert systems use this language. Alma-0, Prolog, and Absys are the languages of this type.

Other Ways to Classify Programming Languages 

There are several other ways to classify programming languages beyond the traditional categorizations. Let’s explore three alternative methods: front-end vs. back-end languages, high-level vs. low-level languages, and interpreted vs. compiled languages.

Front-end vs. back-end languages:

Programming languages can be classified based on their usage in either front-end or back-end development. Front-end languages, such as HTML, CSS, and JavaScript, are used to create the user interface and user experience of a website or application. Back-end languages, such as Java, Python, and PHP, are responsible for handling server-side operations, data retrieval, and business logic.

High-level vs. low-level languages:

Another way to classify programming languages is based on their level of abstraction. High-level languages, like Java, Python, and C++, provide a more human-readable syntax and abstract away many low-level details. They are designed to be more developer-friendly and offer advanced features. In contrast, low-level languages, such as assembly language and machine code, are closer to the hardware and require a deep understanding of computer architecture.

Interpreted vs. compiled languages:

Programming languages can also be categorized based on their execution process. Interpreted languages, like Python, JavaScript, and Ruby, are executed line by line by an interpreter at runtime. They do not require a compilation step and offer flexibility and ease of use. Compiled languages, such as C, C++, and Go, are first translated into machine code through a compilation process before execution. Compiled languages often provide better performance but require an additional build step.

What are the Best Programming Languages to Learn in 2023?

After understanding the major programming types, you can easily look at the best programming languages. By learning these languages, you can improve your skill set and earn a good amount as a specific or muti language coder.

1. Python

Python is one of the most fantastic programming languages because it is easy for beginners and free to use. It has an extensive support module that helps in creating websites and applications. Moreover, with the help of this coding language, you can automate different repetitive tasks to reduce human efforts and improve computer efficiency. Many big companies, like Meta, JP Morgan, Spotify, etc., use Python.

Key Points

  • This is a highly scalable open-source programming language and is compatible with both Mac and Windows.
  • Python is straightforward to learn and use compared to languages such as Java, Go, C, and more.
  • Using this language, you can easily make graphical user interfaces for multiple purposes without any difficulty.

Average Annual Salary Income

The annual average salary of a Python coder in the USA is $96,890/year.

2. C Language

C is a procedural language that doesn’t require much run time to support. This low-level programming language is a good option for operating systems, hardware drivers, and more. Moreover, it has two advanced versions: C Sharp and C++. Many companies, like Microsoft, YouTube, Red Hat, etc., use this language.

Key Points

  • A lot of competitive programmers use C and C++ due to their fast and stable features.
  • You can easily add more features to an already written code in the C program to expand it according to your requirements.
  • C language has a rich set of built-in operators that you can use for writing complex programs in this language.

Average Annual Salary Income

As a C or C++ programmer, you can expect an average salary of $106,243/year. However, it can increase or decrease according to your experience.

3. JavaScript

If you want to do front-end web development, JavaScript is one of the best languages you should learn. This is because a large number of websites use this language for their client-side scripting, due to which it has become a popular coding language. Full-stack developers and software engineers use this language. It is also used by different companies, including PayPal, LinkedIn, and a few more.

Key Points

  • This language is lightweight due to its design. For this reason, it is used for handling the browser on the client side.
  • A lot of control statements like if-else, loops, and more are available in JS. With the help of these tools, you can quickly write complex logic.
  • While using JS, you must remember that this is a case-sensitive programming language. Due to this, all keywords and variables should follow the same capitalization for letters.

Average Annual Salary Income

Based on your experience and expertise, you can get an average annual salary of around $123,131/year as a JavaScript programmer.

You may also like: How to Build a JavaScript Chat App

4. Koltin

You can use the Koltin coding language to develop Android apps specifically for Androids because it is a cross-platform programming language. In addition, this language helps you to avoid null pointer exceptions and reduces the chances of your Android apps crashing. Furthermore, companies like Udemy, CRED, Tech Stack, and others use this language for their benefit.

Key Points

  • Koltin is the fourth-generation language and has many new features like smart casts, null safety, and more which you can use.
  • The codes of this language are very expressive because each programmer can easily understand it without complications.
  • With the help of this language, the amount of boilerplate code decreases due to its conciseness compared to Java.

Average Annual Salary Income

Koltin programmers are getting an average annual salary of $122,582/year in the USA.

5. Swift

Apple Inc. has developed the Swift programming language to create iPhone, iPad, and macOS apps. In the future, this language will be one of the top programming languages for building high-performance, secure applications. Furthermore, some startups, like Asana, Glovo, and Uber, are using this language.

Key Points

  • This language supports dynamic libraries, which are very helpful for coders.
  • In addition, the use of Swift language improves the speed of development of new applications.
  • Using this language, you can find tuples and multiple return values.

Average Annual Salary Income

The average annual salary that you can get as a swift programmer can be around $100,072/year.

Read more: if you are interested in going deeper on the topic, here is a deep dive with a direct comparison between Swift and Objective-C

6. Golang

In 2007, Google developed a coding language, Go or Golang. This language helps to manage the fast-growing infrastructure of Google. Many software programmers use Golang for developing web applications and cloud networking services by using this in an array of operating systems. In addition, different companies like Dropbox, Netflix, and Uber use this language for their platforms.

Key Points

  • This language can deal with multiple things at once and has static typing.
  • Golang has super-fast compilers, which help compile a large Go program in a few moments.
  • Using the Go coding language, you can maintain a great readability level without much difficulty.

Average Annual Salary Income

If you want to become a Golang language programmer, you can see that your average annual salary could be around $165,889/year or more.


According to some surveys, around 50% of programmers use the HTML/CSS programming language. HTML is the standard coding language for web browser display and more. At the same time, CSS helps add style to specific elements because it determines how a particular element should be visible in a markup language. Furthermore, Google, Amazon, and some other companies use this language.

Key Points

  • With the help of HTML/CSS, you can make the foundation of your website. This is because HTML helps in making the structure of a page, while CSS helps in its visual layouts.
  • Both HTML and CSS are very easy to learn and use. Due to this, they have become one of the best options for beginners who want to learn software development.
  • You can easily run HTML/CSS on any browser, which makes it platform-independent.

Average Annual Salary Income

The average salary an HTML/CSS programmer takes in the USA is around $109,834/year.

8. PHP

PHP is an open-source programming language that is very helpful to many web developers for back-end development. According to some resources data, it is said that around 80% of websites on the internet are built with this language. Many companies, including Slack, WhatsApp, Facebook, and more, reportedly use PHP in their tech stacks.

Key Points

  • PHP is one of the best languages for beginners to learn and start their programming careers.
  • With the help of PHP, you can easily modify data in your database as per your requirements.
  • In addition, PHP can also help you generate dynamic page content, control user access, edit files on the server, and much more.

Average Annual Salary Income

According to some surveys, the annual average salary of a PHP coder is around $85,499/year in the USA.

9. Ruby

Ruby is a programming language that is used for web application development. It is also used as a data analysis and prototyping language by some programmers. Moreover, it is because using this language helps to improve web application security. Different companies like GitHub, Shopify, and more are using Ruby for their online platforms.

Key Points

  • Ruby is an object-oriented programming language that is used for web application development.
  • This language can easily be installed on different environments, including Windows and POSIX.
  • Different GUI tools, such as GTK and OpenGL, are supported with Ruby. In addition to this, you can easily connect with MySQL and Oracle.

Average Annual Salary Income

$136,872/ year is the average annual salary of a Ruby developer in the USA.

10. SQL

SQL is a Structured Query Language with the main use to manipulate and access data in databases. The website’s database is organized with the help of SQL by different web developers. Furthermore, it is used by different companies, including Uber, Amazon, and LinkedIn, for multiple purposes like data modification and more.

Key Points

  • Programmers can easily retrieve data, and insert and update or delete records in a database with the help of SQL.
  • Many applications and environments, including e-commerce and web applications, use SQL.
  • With the help of SQL, you can get better data integrity and improved performance.

Average Annual Salary Income

In the USA, it is recorded that the average annual salary of an SQL programmer is $98,938/year.

What Programming Language Should You Learn?

When deciding which programming language to learn, it’s important to consider your goals and interests. If you are interested in web development, focusing on languages like JavaScript, HTML, and CSS is essential. JavaScript is widely used for building interactive and dynamic web pages, while HTML and CSS provide the structure and styling for web content. These languages are fundamental for front-end development and can help you create visually appealing and user-friendly websites.

On the other hand, if you are interested in data analysis and machine learning, Python is a popular choice. Python’s simplicity and extensive library ecosystems, such as NumPy, Pandas, and TensorFlow, make it an excellent language for working with data. It has a large and supportive community, making it easier to find resources and get help when needed.

Consider your career aspirations and the market demand for each language when making your decision. Ultimately, choose a language that aligns with your interests and has a strong ecosystem to support your learning journey.

Fusing ZEGOCLOUD SDK with Programming Language

For software developers who want to develop some amazing apps, the above-mentioned programming languages can be beneficial. If you want to save time and effort, you can get help from ZEGOCOLUD. It provides a unique and innovative video chat API, voice call API, chat API, and live streaming API that helps build fantastic communication apps of all kinds with innovative features. 

zegocloud sdk

Furthermore, you can also use ZEGOCLOUD UIKits to build video calls, voice calls,s or live streaming platforms for a quick developing experience. It offers 20+ pre-built UIKits and UI components that allow companies to build engaging apps in the shortest possible time.

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